Models of prevention

Several international models that recognise the complexity of the factors that influence AOD use among young people have been developed.

Two well-known models are the Plant Youth Icelandic Prevention model and the Communities That Care model. Both group the factors into a number of domains, influenced by the broader environment.

Planet Youth / the Icelandic Prevention Model8

The Icelandic Prevention Model (IPM) conceptualises the behaviour of young people as being the product of the social environment in which they have been raised and in which they are living.

Risk and protective factors for AOD use are elements of this social environment.

The IPM details three main risk factors:

  • lack of environmental sanctions (e.g. from parents)
  • low individual and/or community investment in traditional and positive values (e.g. high educational aspirations)
  • lack of pro-social opportunities (e.g. organised recreational/extracurricular activities).

The model is centred around the domains of: family, school, peers and leisure time.

Communities That Care9,10

The Communities that Care (CTC) model applies a prevention and early intervention framework to guide communities, families and schools to identify, implement and evaluate interventions that promote prosocial bonding with young people.

This bonding is facilitated by participation in a social group (e.g. family or classroom, or community), possessing the skills to participate, and being recognised for participating. The program aims to foster healthy behaviour and social commitment among children and youth to prevent and reduce youth problem behaviours.

The model is similar to the Icelandic model and organised under the domains of: community, family, school and peer/individual.

Proposed framework for the ADF

In developing a framework to guide the Alcohol and Drug Foundation’s approach we have incorporated aspects of both the Icelandic and CTC models, as both provide useful approaches that can prevent and delay uptake of alcohol and other drugs amongst young people.

We have also considered the broader environmental factors below.

Broader influence environment