Last updated : May 21, 2018

What are steroids?

Steroids are drugs that help the growth and repair of muscle tissue. They are synthetic hormones that imitate male sex hormones, specifically testosterone.

Steroids can increase lean muscle mass, strength and endurance, but only if used in conjunction with certain exercise and diet regimes1. They can also help people reduce fat and recover quicker from injury2.

Steroids are classed as performance and image enhancing drugs (PIEDs). These substances are taken by people with the intention of improving their physical appearance or enhancing their sporting performance.

How are they used?

Steroids can be injected or taken as a tablet.

Other names

Formally known as anabolic steroids or anabolic-androgenic steroids, but they are sometimes called ‘roids’, ‘gear’ or ‘juice’.

Who uses steroids and why?

  • Competitive athletes – who are motived by their desire to succeed.
  • People concerned about their body image – recreational weight trainers and body builders and people working in the fashion and entertainment industries.
  • Body building professionals – people involved in body building as a competitive sport.
  • People who need muscle strength to do their job – bodyguards, security personal, construction workers, police and members of the armed services.
  • Young men – who want to increase their athletic performance or who are striving to reach the same physical appearance that is often portrayed in the media.21

How do they work?

Steroids are injected directly into muscles. They travel through the bloodstream to muscle cells where they start a chemical reaction that helps build muscle strength.3

Steroids are typically injected over a six to 12 week period. This is followed by a break of the same length to prevent muscle cells shutting down in the long term. This is known as cycling.2

Different steroids are often combined in a process known as stacking. This is done to achieve effects such as increasing muscle mass, making it leaner and getting greater muscle definition (known as cutting).2

Side effects

There is no safe level of drug use. Use of any drug always carries some risk. It’s important to be careful when taking any type of drug.

People may use steroids in what they believe to be a healthy lifestyle context. They may not see themselves as injecting drug users. However, there are risks associated with using steroids without a prescription or medical supervision, even as part of a fitness training program.

In the worst case, long-term heavy steroid use can lead to heart attack, stroke and death4, especially among men aged in their early 30s who combine steroids with other stimulant drugs, such as speed and ecstasy.5,6

Steroids can also take a toll on personal relationships as they can cause mood swings, a higher sex drive and, in extreme cases, violent behaviour7, especially when combined with alcohol.8

They can ruin sporting careers, with positive tests potentially resulting in fines, suspensions and bans from competitive sports.9 On a more superficial level, steroids can lead to premature baldness in men.

Steroids affect everyone differently. The following may be experienced:

  • Water retention – leading to facial bloating
  • Acne – leading to permanent scarring
  • Irritability and mood swings
  • More frequent colds
  • Aggression and violence
  • Increased sex drive
  • Sleeping difficulties10

Longer-term effects may include:

  • Liver damage
  • Kidney or prostate cancer
  • High blood pressure
  • Depression
  • Tendon/ ligament damage11


  • Reduced sperm count and fertility
  • Shrunken testicles
  • Baldness
  • Gynaecomastia (developing breasts)
  • Involuntarily and long-lasting erection12


  • Facial hair growth
  • Irregular periods
  • Deepened voice
  • Smaller breasts
  • Enlarged clitoris13

Pregnant women who use steroids risk passing on male traits to unborn daughters due to the increased male hormones in their bloodstream. The only way to avoid the risk of fetal damage is to stop using steroids at least 4 months before falling pregnant, as well as during pregnancy.14

Young people

Young men are more likely than young women to use steroids to gain weight and muscle mass.

The risks of the following side effects are higher if steroids are injected by young men in their late teens/ early 20s, before they have stopped growing:

  • Stunted growth
  • Premature balding
  • Acne scarring
  • Stretch marks on chest and arms
  • Prematurely-aged, ‘leathery’ skin
  • Injuries from excessively intense gym workouts15

Injecting risks

Injecting steroids can cause permanent nerve damage, which can lead to sciatica.16 Injecting in unhygienic environments or sharing equipment with others also increases the risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, tetanus or Hepatitis C or B.17


Although steroids are not addictive, people can find themselves relying on them to build confidence and self-esteem.18 This reliance can make it difficult to stop using them in the longer term. Fear of losing muscle size or definition can lead to depression and the pressure to continue use.10

The following symptoms may be experienced after completing a steroid cycle:

  • Extreme tiredness
  • Weight loss due to decreased appetite
  • Decreased strength
  • Depression13

It can take up to four months to restore the body’s natural testosterone levels (if taking high doses for an extended period of time).

Health and safety

Steroids should only be injected with a prescription for a specific medical reason or under medical supervision.

Injecting more than the recommended dose does not create larger muscles – the muscle simply becomes saturated. Higher doses only raise the risks of more adverse side effects without providing any additional benefits.19

It is not necessary to inject directly into specific muscles as the steroids are transported to all muscle groups via the bloodstream.20

There are many steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of harm caused by long-term steroid use. These include:

  • Using lower doses to reduce the risk of side effects
  • Never injecting steroids directly into biceps, calf muscles or pectorals, to avoid causing permanent nerve damage
  • Avoiding repeatedly injecting steroids into the same area of the body
  • Limiting cycles to 8 to 10 weeks to rest the kidneys, liver and endocrine system
  • Avoiding sharing injecting equipment with others to reduce the risk of contracting a blood-borne virus such as HIV or Hepatitis C
  • Using a clean needle from an unopened package with every injection
  • Avoiding combining steroids with diuretics such as caffeine, alcohol and other drugs like amphetamines (such as ice and speed)
  • Injecting steroids in a sterile location
  • Discussing steroid use with a doctor, even if it is without a prescription
  • Discussing the perceived need to take steroids with a counsellor19,20
Steroids and the law

It is illegal to manufacture, import, possess, use or supply steroids without a prescription or medical practitioner licence. The penalties for illegally administering steroids varies for every Australian state and territory.22

It is also against the law to inject another person with steroids, or for them to be self-administered without a prescription.

Medical practitioners can only prescribe steroids for legitimate medical reasons.22

Steroid use is banned in competitive sport. Testing positive for steroids can result in fines, suspensions or permanent bans.23

Steroids statistics
  • According to the Australian Crime Commission the number of steroid seizures at our borders has increased seven fold between 2004/05 (50) and 2013/14 (357).24
  • The Australian Needle and Syringe Program survey found that performance and image enhancing drug use grew from 2% in 2010 to 7% in 2014.25
  1. Kadi, F., Eriksson, A., Holmner, S. T. A. F. F. A. N., & Thornell, L. E. (1999). Effects of anabolic steroids on the muscle cells of strength-trained athletes. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 31(11), 1528–1534
  2. Evans, N. A. (1997). Gym and tonic: a profile of 100 male steroid users. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 31(1), 54–58.
  3. Kutscher, E. C., Lund, B. C., & Perry, P. J. (2002). Anabolic Steroids. Sports Medicine, 32(5), 285-296.
  4. Angell, M. P., Chester, N., Green, D., Somauroo, J., Whyte, G., & George, K. (2012). Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk. Sports medicine, 42(2), 119–134.
  5. Darke, S., Torok, M., & Duflou, J. (2014). Sudden or Unnatural Deaths Involving Anabolic‐androgenic Steroids. Journal of Forensic Sciences.
  6. Baggish, A. L., Weiner, R. B., Kanayama, G., Hudson, J. I., Picard, M. H., Hutter, A. M., & Pope, H. G. (2010). Long term anabolic-androgenic steroid use is associated with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation: Heart Failure, CIRCHEARTFAILURE-109.
  7. Beaver, K. M., Vaughn, M. G., DeLisi, M., & Wright, J. P. (2008). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use and involvement in violent behavior in a nationally representative sample of young adult males in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 98(12), 2185.
  8. van Amsterdam, J., Opperhuizen, A., & Hartgens, F. (2010). Adverse health effects of anabolic–androgenic steroids. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, 57(1), 117–123.
  9. Todd, T. (2007). Anabolic Steroids. Women and Sports in the United States: A Documentary Reader, 14(1), 138.
  10. Hartgens, F., & Kuipers, H. (2004). Effects of androgenic-anabolic steroids in athletes. Sports Medicine, 34(8), 513–554.
  11. Kanayama, G., Hudson, J. I., & Pope Jr, H. G. (2008). Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic–androgenic steroid abuse: A looming public health concern?. Drug and alcohol dependence, 98(1), 1–12.
  12.  de Souza, G. L., & Hallak, J. (2011). Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review. BJU international, 108(11), 1860–1865.
  13. Maravelias, C., Dona, A., Stefanidou, M., & Spiliopoulou, C. (2005). Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes: a constant threat. Toxicology Letters, 158(3), 167–175.
  14. Shahidi, N. T. (2001). A review of the chemistry, biological action, and clinical applications of anabolic-androgenic steroids. Clinical therapeutics, 23(9), 1355–1390.
  15. Parkinson, A. B., & Evans, N. A. (2006). Anabolic androgenic steroids: a survey of 500 users. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 38(4), 644–651.
  16. Perry, H. M., Wright, D., & Littlepage, B. N. (1992). Dying to be big: a review of anabolic steroid use. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(4), 259–261.
  17.  Hoffman, J. R., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Kang, J., & Tenenbaum, G. (2008). Nutritional supplementation and anabolic steroid use in adolescents. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 40(1), 15–24.
  18. Kanayama, G., Brower, K. J., Wood, R. I., Hudson, J. I., & Pope Jr, H. G. (2010). Treatment of anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications. Drug and alcohol dependence, 109(1), 6–13.
  19. Daly, R. C., Su, T. P., Schmidt, P. J., Pagliaro, M., Pickar, D., & Rubinow, D. R. (2003). Neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of high-dose anabolic steroid administration in male normal volunteers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28(3), 317–331.
  20. Busche, K. (2009). Neurologic disorders associated with weight lifting and bodybuilding. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America, 20(1), 273–286.
  21. Peters, R., Copeland, J. & Dillion, P. (1999). Steroid Facts.
  22. Australian Institute of Criminology (2011). Steroids.
  23. World Anti-Doping Authority (2014). Anabolic agents.
  24. Australian Crime Commission. (2015). 2013-14 Illicit Drug Data Report.
  25. Iversen, J. & Maher, L. (2015). Australian NSP Survey – Prevalence of HIV, HCV and injecting and sexual behaviour among Needle and Syringe Program attendees, 20 year national data report 1995-2014.


acne, aggression, assist growth and repair of muscle, assist in bone growth, increase strength and endurance, increased sex drive, mood swings, more frequent colds, recover from injury, sleeping difficulties.


'roids, gear, juice.